Hyperglycemia means high levels of sugar, or glucose( dangerous blood sugar levels) in the blood. It occurs when the body does not produce enough or does not use enough insulin, which is a hormone that takes glucose into cells to be used as energy. High blood sugar is one of the signs of diabetes. If a person with diabetes does not control their blood sugar level, they may develop a serious condition called diabetic ketoacidosis. If a person does not get treatment for this disease (ketoacidosis), he or she may fall into diabetes, which is a problem of dangerous high blood sugar levels.
It can also affect people with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes, as well as pregnant women with diabetes. sometimes affect people who do not have diabetes, but are usually people who are seriously ill or overweight, such as those who have recently had a stroke or heart attack, or who have a serious infection. Hyperglycemia should not be confused with another hypoglycemia, when a person’s blood sugar level drops dramatically.
Signs/Symptoms of Hyperglycemia
Hyperglycemia causes symptoms that a person will experience during personal monitoring or other information, including:
- blood sugar levels above 130 mg per deciliter (mg / dl) before meals or more than 180 mg / dl 2 hours after the start of a meal
- need to pass urine regularly
- feeling thirsty more often
- higher than average sugar level in the urine.
While the visible symptoms of hyperglycemia do not show up at a dose below 250 mg / dl, people with diabetes should check themselves regularly enough to get their sugar levels before reaching the stage that causes the symptoms.
What are dangerous blood sugar levels?
If you feel you have diabetes or are in fact, controlling your blood sugar level is one of the most important parts of treating your condition. That’s because high blood sugar levels can cause long-term problems for your health. When you have diabetes, your body cannot get sugar from the blood to enter the cells, or make enough insulin, or whatever. This leads to higher blood sugar levels, or higher blood sugar levels. Carbohydrates in the diet cause blood sugar levels to rise after eating.
When you eat carbohydrate foods, the process of digestion turns them into sugar. These sugars are released into the bloodstream and transported to the cells. The pancreas, a small organ in the stomach, produces a hormone called insulin to meet the sugar in the cells. Insulin acts as a “bridge”, allowing sugar from the blood to enter the cells. When the cell uses the sugar intensively, the blood sugar levels drop. If you have diabetes, there is a problem with the insulin-producing pancreas, or insulin-producing cells, or both.
What are normal blood glucose levels in healthy individuals?
Blood sugar levels can be normal, high, or low, depending on how much sugar a person has in their blood. Glucose is a simple sugar that is in the bloodstream all the time. Normal blood sugar levels can be measured when a person fasts, eats, or after eating. The normal level of blood sugar in adults, without diabetes, who have not eaten for at least eight hours (fasting) is less than 100 mg / dL. The normal blood sugar level for adults, without diabetes, two hours after eating is 90 to 110 mg / dL.
factors that affect blood sugar levels throughout the day.
A variety of factors can cause an increase in blood sugar levels in people with diabetes, including.
- Insulin delivery problems. If you are on an insulin pump, you must check your blood sugar regularly. Insulin delivery can stop if the pump fails or the catheter is twisted or falls in place. Insulin deficiency can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis.
- Illness, trauma or surgery. When you are sick or injured, your blood sugar levels increase, sometimes very much. This can lead to diabetes ketoacidosis if you have type 1 diabetes and do not increase your insulin dose to compensate.
- Health conditions, such as heart disease or kidney disease, can also increase your risk of hyperosmolar diabetes.
- Misdiagnosed diabetes. If you do not monitor your blood sugar properly or take your medication as prescribed, you will be at greater risk of developing long-term problems with diabetes.
- Deliberately skipping food or insulin. Sometimes, people with diabetes who also have an eating disorder choose not to use their insulin as directed by the hope of losing weight. This is a dangerous, life-threatening behavior that increases the risk of coma in diabetes.
- Drinking alcohol. Alcohol can have a profound effect on your blood sugar if you are not aware of it. The effects of alcohol can make it difficult for you to know when you have symptoms of high blood sugar. This may increase your risk of diabetes due to hypoglycemia.
- Illegal drug use. Illegal drugs, such as cocaine and pleasure, can increase your risk of high blood sugar levels and conditions associated with diabetes.
Frequent episodes of hyperglycemia can also occur in children and adolescents during adolescence when they are not careful to take precautions for hyperglycemia.
Treatments of high blood sugar levels
Talk to your doctor about controlling your blood sugar and understand how a variety of treatments can help keep your blood sugar levels within your target range. Your doctor may recommend the following treatments
1. Exercise regularly
Exercise is a quick and effective way to lower your blood sugar level. Exercise can lower your blood sugar by 24 hours or more after you finish. This factor makes your body more sensitive to insulin. Physical activity causes the body to demand sugar for energy. As a result, cells bring sugar to the muscles and blood sugar levels usually drop. For this to work, you need a type of exercise that makes your heart beat faster than normal.
This may include walking faster. Important note, if your blood sugar is above 240 mg / dl, you should check your urine for ketones. If ketones are present, do not exercise, as this may increase your blood sugar levels. Exercising when you have ketones in your urine increases your risk of stress from high blood sugar.
There are several ways in which exercise lowers blood sugar:
Insulin sensitivity is increased, so your muscle cells have a better ability to use any insulin available to take glucose during and after activities.
When your muscles are strained during activity, your cells are able to absorb sugar and use it vigorously whether insulin is available or not.
This is how exercise can help lower blood sugar in the short term. And when you work out regularly, it can also slow down your A1C. Exercise can temporarily lower blood sugar by using glucose for fats. It can also help you control your blood sugar for a long time by increasing insulin health,
Note. Exercising regularly can bring high blood sugar levels, but do not exercise if there is ketones in your urine. Talk to your doctor if you need to take insulin to treat hyperglycemia.
2. Take your medications as directed.
Some people with type 2 diabetes who need medication start taking a medication called metformin. This is not good for everyone so your doctor will discuss other options with you if needed.
If this first medication does not help you and your diabetes gets worse over time, you may need to look for alternatives to the medication you are already taking. If this still does not help or your diabetes is getting worse, you may be offered a third-line medication, or your doctor may recommend that you start with insulin.
There are a variety of medications that can be used to treat type 2 diabetes. Some medicines are used alone and some can be used in combination with others. The medication you are given will depend on your diabetes, what type of diabetes medication you have had before, any other health issues you have and your wishes. Your doctor should prescribe different types of medications and any possible side effects so that you can decide together what is best for you.
If you are unable to maintain your blood sugar level with nutrition and exercise, your doctor may prescribe diabetes medications that help lower insulin levels or insulin therapy. Medication treatment for type 2 diabetes includes the following. Metformin (Fortamet, Glumetza, others) is generally the first drug prescribed for type 2 diabetes. It works primarily by reducing glucose production in the liver and improving your body’s sensitivity to insulin so that your body can use insulin better.
If your blood sugar level is high, the name of the treatment is this hyperglycaemia. Symptoms of hyperglycaemia include excessive thirst, excessive urination and extreme fatigue. If your blood sugar level is too high and you experience any or all of these symptoms, you will be given insulin or a medication called sulfonylurea to lower your blood sugar level. If your blood sugar is under control your doctor will check your treatment.
3. Eat carbohydrates in moderation
There are two main types of carbohydrates (simple and complex) that affect different blood sugar levels.
Simple carbohydrates are made with one type of sugar. They are found in a variety of foods, such as white bread, pasta, and sweets. The body breaks down these carbohydrates into sugar very quickly, which causes blood sugar levels to rise very quickly.
Complex carbohydrates are made up of three or more sugars that are mixed together. Because the chemical structure of these carbohydrates is complex, so it takes a long time for the body to break down.
As a result, sugar is slowly released from the body, meaning that blood sugar levels do not rise immediately after eating. Examples of complex carbohydrates include corn barley and sweet potatoes.
When a person has diabetes, a diet plan is very important because it guides you on what kind of food to eat. It should be good enough to fit your eating habits as well as your schedule. A good diet plan should include: Glycemic Index, Counting Carb, The plate method.
Foods that have low levels of glycemic index are better options for lowering blood sugar than foods with high levels of glycemic index Glycemic index. it basically depends on the physiological ability of nutritional carbohydrates to reduce or increase blood sugar levels, meaning the type of food consumed by a diabetic. Foods with high glycemic levels have more than 50 levels, and often between 75-100
The purpose of a good diet plan is to help keep your weight on track, improve your cholesterol levels, blood sugar and also your blood pressure. According to former researchers and health educators, good nutrition as well as a healthy lifestyle to exercise in order to maintain a healthy weight can help reduce type 2 diabetes.
Note, It helps to eat small portions and avoid sugary drinks and regular snacks. If you have trouble sticking to your diet plan, ask your doctor or nutritionist for help.
4. Get enough sleep
Your sleep patterns can affect many things about your health – your weight, your immune system, and even how well your brain is functioning. But it also plays an important role in controlling your blood sugar (or glucose), which affects your chances of getting diabetes.
What Happens to Blood Sugar When You Sleep
It is bound by if the hormone insulin, which removes glucose from the blood, works as it should. Blood sugar levels rise while you are asleep, usually around 4 to 8 in the morning for someone with a normal sleep schedule. For a healthy person, insulin can handle the increase by telling muscle cells, fat, and liver cells to take glucose from the blood, which keeps your levels in balance.
For people who have had diabetes or who have symptoms of the possibility of getting it, insulin will not be able to function properly, so blood sugar levels will rise.
So what Can You Do?
If you work at night or change shifts; Try to maintain a regular diet and bedtime, even your leisure time, if you can. And exercise during breaks, such as short walks or stretching.
If you are worried about your blood sugar; Getting a good night’s sleep regularly will go a long way in helping your body use insulin properly. In addition to getting enough sleep, avoid eating at night, and try to get some exercise after dinner, such as walking.
If you have diabetes; If your blood sugar level rises in the morning, you should talk to your doctor. You may need to do an extra blood sugar test or use an ongoing sugar test to find out what is going on, which will determine how you should handle it. Your doctor may recommend a reduction in your diabetes medication or exercise regimen.
5. Manage stress
Too much stress, no matter what the cause, can be difficult to control. All that comes with diabetes can bring stress on its own. You may fear for your job security or your health. In addition, you may feel overwhelmed by the news or lonely in the company of friends. Putting all that stress together can help you to manage your diabetes well.
During stressful situations, your insulin levels drop and levels of stress hormones rise. That makes it difficult for your insulin to work the way it should. All of this can increase your blood sugar. If you are looking for a snack or alcohol to deal with stress, that can make things worse.
Also stress can make some people sick. And when you have diabetes, stress can greatly affect your ability to control your illness. If you suffer from depression, you may skip meals or forget to take your medication, which will affect your blood sugar level.
Here are some tips:
Try to Have a Positive Attitude; When things seem to go awry, it is always easy to see the bad instead of the good. Find something positive in every important area of your life: work, family, friends, and health.
Be kind to yourself; What are your talents, abilities, and goals? Do you expect much from yourself? Don’t expect more of yourself than you have or the ability to give. It’s okay to say “no” to things you don’t really want or need to do.
Accept What You Cannot Change; For those difficult situations or problems that cannot be changed, create a simple action plan.
Talk to Someone About Your Stressors; Do not put everything in the bottle inside. If you do not want to talk to a family member or close friend, there are counselors and priests trained to provide help and understanding.
Stress Reduction Exercise; The benefits of exercise in reducing stress are well known. Exercise gives you a sense of well-being and can alleviate the symptoms of depression.
Although you cannot completely eliminate stress from your life, there are several ways you can reduce it. And by learning to manage stress effectively, you can help control your diabetes. In addition, with a little stress, you may have the energy you need to eat right, exercise, and monitor your blood sugar. Having ways to reduce stress can also help you to sleep better. That’s good because when you don’t get enough sleep, your blood sugar can rise.
So when to get urgent medical attention
If you feel symptoms of high or low blood sugar symptoms and think you may be successful, call 911 or your local emergency number. If you have a diabetic who has passed away, call for emergency help, and be sure to tell emergency personnel to know that an unconscious person has diabetes. You may be able to contact your diabetes care team immediately if you have a high blood sugar level and experience the following symptoms:
- feeling or being sick
- abdominal pain (stomach) and diarrhea
- fast, deep breathing
- fever (38C or more) for more than 24 hours
- signs of dehydration, such as headaches, dry skin and weak, rapid heartbeat
- difficulty staying awake
These symptoms can be a sign of a more serious problem of hyperglycemia, such as diabetes ketoacidosis or a history of hypertension, and you may need to be hospitalized.