Methods of Controlling Diseases Transmitted by Faecal Contamination

Methods of Controlling Diseases Transmitted by Faecal Contamination;- One method that germs have developed for doing this is fecal-oral transmission. Fecal-oral transmission is a frequent method for the transmission of several common illnesses, including Shigella, Adenovirus, Campylobacter, Coxsackie, Giardia, Hepatitis A, Salmonella, and E. coli.

Disease is any adverse variation from an organism’s normal structural or functional condition that is typically accompanied by a set of symptoms and is distinct from physical injury in origin. A diseased organism frequently displays symptoms or indicators that point to its aberrant condition. Read More

 Faecal Contamination
Faecal Contamination

Diseases transmitted by faecal contamination

  • Causative organisms are excreted in the stools of infected persons
  • The causative organisms enter the body through the mouth
  • Transmission occurs through faecal contamination of food, water and hands
  • Food plays a central role in transmitting disease as it can be directly or indirectly contaminated via polluted water, dirty hands, contaminated soil, flies and animals or animal products
  • Water can be polluted directly by faeces, or faecal material may be washed in from polluted soil
  • Hands are contaminated after defaecation or by touching contaminated objects

Diseases transmitted by faecal-oral contamination:

  • Typhoid fever
  • Cholera
  • Amoebic dysentery
  • Bacillary dysentery
  • Staphylococcal food poisoning
  • Ascariasis
  • Taeniasis
  • Hydatidosis

Methods for Controlling Diseases Transmitted by Faecal Contamination

Methods for Prevention of faecal-oral diseases includes:

  • Proper methods of stool disposal e.g. use of latrines
  • Hand washing using soap and water after visiting toilets and before handling food
  • Proper disposal of refuse
  • Proper cooking of food
  • Proper washing of fruits and vegetables before eating
  • Boil milk and water before drinking
  • Protection, purification and chlorination of public water supplies
  • Health education e.g. dangers of bottle feeding

Key Points 

  • Causative organisms of fecal-oral diseases are excreted in the stools of infected persons
  • Transmission occurs through faecal contamination of food, water and hands
  • Control of faecal-oral diseases depends on breaking the faecal –oral transmission cycle

References

  • Cook, G., & Zumla, A. (2003). Manson’s Tropical Diseases. (21st ed).  London: Saunders Ltd.
  • Denyer, S. P., Hodges, N. A., Gorman, S. P., & Gilmore BF (2011) (eds),Hugo& Russell’s Pharmaceutical Microbiology (8th ed). Oxford: Willey-Blackwell publishing
  • Eshuis J., & Manschot, P (1992).Communicable diseases, (1sted). Nairobi: AMREF
  • GoT (2004).National Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) Guidelines for Healthcare Workers. Dar es Salaam: MOHSW
  • GoT (2013).Standard Treatment Guidelines & National Essential Medicines List (4thed). Dar es Salaam: MOHSW
  • Nordberg, E. (1999).Communicable Diseases, A Manual for Health Workers in Sub-Saharan Africa, Nairobi: AMREF
  • Nordberg, E., Kingondu, T., & Mugambi, E., et al. (2008).Communicable Diseases. (4thed). Nairobi: AMREF.
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