Methods of Controlling Vector-borne Diseases

Methods of Controlling Vector-borne Diseases;- Numerous vector-borne infections are zoonotic, or diseases that can spread between animals and people either directly or indirectly. These include, for instance, Leishmaniasis, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

Vectors are living organisms that can transmit infectious pathogens between humans, or from animals to humans. Many of these vectors are bloodsucking insects, which ingest disease-producing microorganisms during a blood meal from an infected host (human or animal) and later transmit it into a new host, after the pathogen has replicated. Often, once a vector becomes infectious, they are capable of transmitting the pathogen for the rest of their life during each subsequent bite/blood meal. Read More

Vector-borne Diseases
Vector-borne Diseases

Common Vector-borne Diseases

Common Vector borne Diseases:

  • Vector is any carrier of disease (insects, mosquitos, ticks and snails) which are an essential part of the life cycle of the disease causative organism
  • Vectors acquire disease organisms by sucking blood from infected persons or animals and pass them on by same route

Common vector borne diseases:

  1. Malaria
  2. Filariasis
  3. Trypanosomiasis
  4. Yellow fever
  5. Plague
  6. Schistosomiasis

Vectors of Medical Importance

The following are Vectors of Medical importance:

Table 4.1 Common vectors and the diseases they transmit

Vector Disease(s)
Mosquitoes

 

Malaria, filariasis, yellow fever, dengue fever
Black flies River blindness
Biting flies Trypanosomiasis ( sleeping sickness)
Lice Relapsing fever ( louse-borne )
Fleas Plague
Soft ticks Relapsing fever ( tick-borne )
Hard ticks African tick-borne typhus

Methods of Vector Control

Methods of Vector Control:

The control may be brought about by:

  1. Reducing the reservoir host
  2. Control the vector population
  3. Killing adults with insecticides
  4. Killing larva with larvicides
  5. Prevention of breeding sites by environmental sanitation
  6. Protecting the susceptible individuals
    • Use of insecticide treated nets
    • Ue of chemoprophylaxis
    • Use of repellents and protective clothing

Key Points 

  • Vector is any carrier of disease
  • A vector is required for the transmission of vector-borne diseases.
  • Measures that reduce vector population and protect susceptible hosts are used to control vector-borne diseases.

References

  • Cook, G., & Zumla, A. (2003). Manson’s Tropical Diseases. (21st ed).  London: Saunders Ltd.
  • Denyer, S. P., Hodges, N. A., Gorman, S. P., & Gilmore BF (2011) (eds),Hugo& Russell’s Pharmaceutical Microbiology (8th ed). Oxford: Willey-Blackwell publishing
  • Eshuis J., & Manschot, P (1992).Communicable diseases, (1sted). Nairobi: AMREF
  • GoT (2004).National Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) Guidelines for Healthcare Workers. Dar es Salaam: MOHSW
  • GoT (2013).National Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Malaria. Dar es salaam: MOHSW
  • GoT (2013).Standard Treatment Guidelines & National Essential Medicines List (4thed). Dar es Salaam: MOHSW
  • Nordberg, E. (1999).Communicable Diseases, A Manual for Health Workers in Sub-Saharan Africa, Nairobi: AMREF
  • Nordberg, E., Kingondu, T., & Mugambi, E., et al. (2008).Communicable Diseases. (4thed). Nairobi: AMREF.
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