Welcome to the world of biology! If you’re just starting out, the human body can be a little confusing. That’s why we’re here! In this post, we’ll answer some very basic questions about one of the most important systems in your body: your nervous system. So get ready—we’re about to dive into this fascinating realm.
What are the 2 types of neurons?
Neurons are the cells that make up your nervous system. There are two types of neurons: sensory neurons and motor neurons.
Sensory neurons transmit information from the body to the brain, while motor neurons transmit information from the brain to the body (and vice versa).
How is information sent through a neuron?
The nervous system is made up of two main parts: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system. The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system includes all of your other nerves that connect directly to muscles, organs and glands, etc.
The dendrites are neuronal branches that receive information from other neurons, while an axon’s job is to send information out from a neuron (see diagram).
The axon releases neurotransmitters at its end, which are received by dendrites on another neuron—the process by which information is transmitted between neurons through chemical messengers called neurotransmitters.
What is the difference between sensory, motor, and interneurons?
- Sensory neurons carry information from the outside world to the spinal cord and brain. For example, they transmit pain signals when you touch a hot stove or allow you to see colors and shapes.
- Motor neurons carry information from the brain and spinal cord to muscles. They tell your arms how to move when you want them to pick up an object or kick a soccer ball.
- Interneurons carry information between sensory and motor neurons, helping with communication between them (and other cells).
What are ganglia and nuclei?
Ganglia, or ganglioni, are clusters of neurons found in the peripheral nervous system (the part of your nervous system that includes the spinal cord and your peripheral nerves). Nuclei are groups of nerve cells located in the brain and spinal cord.
Nuclei are also called gray matter, while ganglia are also called white matter because they contain myelin sheaths.
Where is the central nervous system located?
The central nervous system is the brain and spinal cord. The brain is located in the skull and protected by it, while the spinal cord connects to it via nerve roots which run through openings called foramina. The bony vertebrae of your spine protect your spinal cord from damage, with each segment having a disc between them that cushions movement.
Where is the peripheral nervous system located?
The peripheral nervous system includes nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord to other parts of your body, such as your muscles and skin. The main parts of the peripheral nervous system are:
- Autonomic Nervous System: This part controls involuntary functions like breathing, heartbeat, and digestion. It is made up of two divisions: sympathetic and parasympathetic.
- Somatic Nervous System (SNS): This part controls voluntary movements such as walking, talking or running; it also regulates pain signals by sending them back to where they came from so you know when something hurts.
What are reflex arcs?
The nervous system is made up of neurons, which are nerve cells that transmit information through electrical signals. These signals travel along pathways called neural pathways or nerves. Neurons have many synapses (connections) with other neurons so they can share information in a complex way.
The nervous system is composed of two parts: the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. The central part consists of your brain and spinal cord; these two structures form a network that controls activities such as speech, movement and thinking. The peripheral part consists of all other nerves in your body—the ones not located in your brain or spinal cord. This enables you to feel touch sensations on different parts of your body at once!
What are motor pathways?
The nervous system has two types of pathways that send signals from the brain to muscles and other body parts. These are called motor pathways and sensory pathways.
Motor neurons are the only type of neuron that can send signals to muscles. They carry messages from your brain, through the spinal cord, down into muscles so they can contract and move you around in space.
Motor neurons have an axon (the long part that sends electrical impulses) with little branches at intervals along it called synaptic terminals (small bubbles). Each synaptic terminal releases chemicals called neurotransmitters onto a muscle fiber’s membrane (skin). When enough neurotransmitters reach the right spot on a muscle fiber’s membrane, they cause it to contract or relax—depending on what kind of message was sent by way of those neurotransmitters!
Who developed the reflex arc idea?
The reflex arc idea was developed by multiple researchers and scientists. Charles Bell, Sir Charles Scott Sherrington, Sir William Gowers, Sir Henry Head, Walter Bradford Cannon and Walter Hess all contributed to our understanding of the nervous system.
Early contributors include Thomas Lewis and Walter B. Cannon who worked together at Harvard University in the early 20th century. They were primarily interested in developing an understanding of how emotions were expressed physiologically. These two men did research that led to an understanding of how emotions are controlled by hormones from the hypothalamus gland (a part of the brain).
What does the autonomic nervous system do?
The autonomic nervous system controls the involuntary functions of your body, and it’s divided into two branches: the sympathetic branch, which is responsible for fight or flight mode; and the parasympathetic branch, which controls rest and digest mode.
For example, when you’re running away from a bear in the woods, your sympathetic nervous system activates your muscles to help you move faster. When you’re resting after an intense workout at the gym or relaxing on a beach with friends, your parasympathetic nervous system slows down those processes so that they don’t happen at top speed—because not only would that feel exhausting in its own right (and we don’t want that), but it could also be deadly if there were ever a sudden attack while we were “resting.”
Which neurons of the autonomic nervous system control fight or flight and rest and digest mode?
Your body is controlled by two main divisions of the nervous system: the parasympathetic and sympathetic.
The parasympathetic nervous system controls rest and digest mode. When you are asleep or resting, this part of your body is active. The sympathetic nervous system controls fight or flight mode, when you need to be alert and ready for action (like if you were being chased by a lion).
How does the sympathetic branch behave when you are exposed to danger and how does the parasympathetic branch behave in those situations?
The sympathetic nervous system is activated when you are exposed to danger. In this case, your heart rate increases and your pupils dilate so that you can see better. The parasympathetic nervous system is activated by the hypothalamus in response to stress and functions to calm you down.
How does stress impact your behavior>
Stress can increase your heart rate and blood pressure. It can also make you feel sick, increase your risk of heart disease and stroke, make you feel more anxious and depressed, make you feel more tired and irritable, or make it harder for you to think clearly.
The nervous system is a complicated but essential part of your body.
The nervous system is a complicated but essential part of your body. It’s made up of neurons and glial cells, both of which are cells that send and receive information.
Neurons are the cells that send and receive information by using neurotransmitters. Neurons also help you sense things like hot or cold, pain or pleasure, sound or touch. Glial cells support the neurons in doing their job by providing them with nutrients and removing waste products from within the brain itself.
There are many things we still don’t know about the nervous system, but what we have learned over the years is incredibly useful. Whether you’re a parent trying to explain it to your kids or a high-school student cramming for finals, this article should give you everything you need to understand how information travels through your body and how that information can impact your life in so many different ways.